Should I wash my hands before I eat?

Yes. Washing your hands with soap and water cleans them of pathogens (bacteria and viruses) and chemicals that can cause disease. Hot water is not enough to clean your hands. Using soap adds to the time spent washing and breaks down the grease and dirt that carry most germs.

The most important times to wash your hands with soap and water are after you use the toilet or before handling food. When not washed with soap, hands that have been in contact with human or animal feces, bodily fluids like mucus, and contaminated foods or water can transport bacteria, viruses, and parasites to others. When done thoroughly and at least for 20 seconds, hand washing can prevent all types of illness and disease, skin infections, and eye infections.

How are boats powered to move through the water?

Boats need a power source to move them forward in the water. In small vessels this power can be provided by people, who use oars to paddle along. Muscle power cannot move boats very fast or very far, though. The wind can be used, too, to move boats equipped with sails. But for a large boat that needs to go a long distance, the most reliable source of power is a motor-driven engine. Depending on the size of the boat, a gasoline engine, diesel engine, or steam engine does the job. Nuclear power is even used to run some boat engines, like those found in submarines. Motors rotate boat propellers, which have large twisting blades that radiate around a central hub.

These blades push water backward, and the boat moves forward as the disturbed water pushes back. Rotating propellers also create lower water pressure in the space in front of them, which sucks them forward, along with the vessel to which they are attached. (Using these same principles of movement, propellers can also power aircraft.) A boat is steered by a rudder, Which is a flat, upright, movable piece of wood or metal that is attached to its stern, or rear. When turned, the rudder changes the direction of the water around it, which pushes back, forcing the stern, and gradually the rest of the boat, to change direction, too.

Do bears really sleep through an entire winter?

No. Denning bears, such as brown and black bears, often retire to their caves for the winter months, but they sleep lightly, and are often active, with females giving birth to cubs during the winter. They don’t technically hibernate during these months. Hibernation is when a species passes the winter in an inactive state, conserving their resources and energy until winter passes.

Bears are not true hibernators because their body temperature drops only a few degrees and they show only a moderate drop in their metabolism. Small animals with high metabolic rates such as rodents, hummingbirds, and bats are true hibernators: their body temperature drops almost to the level of the surroundings and they show little response to nature’s sights and sounds. These animals collect and eat a lot of high-calorie foods (such as nuts) to store calories to make it through the hibernation period.

Have you ever wondered how Cinderella could have walked in a glass slipper?

The story of Cinderella was passed along orally for centuries before it was written down by Charles Perrault in 1697. While doing so he mistook the word vair, meaning ermine, for the word verre, meaning glass.

By the time he realized his mistake, the story had become too popular to change, and so instead of an ermine slipper, Cinderella wore glass.

Why do I get sick?

When you get sick, part or all of your body is not working as it should. The cause of sickness can come from inside your body or from the outside world. Diseases that start on the inside are usually inherited in the genes that you receive from your parents, Which make up the master plan that determines how your body will grow and run. Abnormal development or functioning of different body systems is the cause of many chronic (long-lasting) diseases. Things in the outside world can cause sickness, too. Poisons in the environment can cause illnesses in people. Not eating the right foods, with their important nutrients, can also cause diseases. But the most common cause of sickness from the outside world is infectious agents. These agents are usually microscopic organisms (living things so small that they can only be seen with the help of microscopes) like bacteria and viruses, which we commonly refer to as germs.

Bacteria and viruses and other microscopic organisms live in the air, water, and soil that make up our world. They are on the things and people we touch and in the food we eat. Many of them are beneficial: bacteria are needed to make cheese, some bacteria help vegetables like peas and beans grow, and some bacteria clean the environment and enrich the soil by feeding on dead plants and animals. But there are other microscopic organisms that invade the bodies of plants and animals—and people—and cause diseases.

Why do I get dizzy after spinning around?

The fluid in your inner ear is responsible for dizziness. After you spin around, your ear fluid keeps spinning, sending conflicting messages to your brain.

These mixed signals cause dizziness, lack of balance, and lightheadedness. After a few seconds, the liquid levels out and the dizziness goes away.

What is the difference between bravery and courage?

Both bravery and courage are acts of valour and imply a certain strength and fearlessness. There is, however, a subtle difference in meaning between the two words. Courage comes from the French word coeur, meaning heart. It is a quality of character that allows someone to carry through with a difficult premeditated plan of action.

Bravery, on the other hand, comes from the Spanish word bravado, meaning a single or spontaneous act of valour. It is not planned, but rather a kneejerk reaction that often occurs within a crisis.

Which tree is the biggest and tallest?

Living species of sequoias are some of the biggest and widest trees in the world. The tallest trees are the coastal redwoods of California, while the widest ones are the giant sequoias, which have much larger trunks and branches. These trees grow in the Sierra Nevada mountains of Central California at elevations of about 6,500 feet (1,981 meters). The trees have survived for 2,000 or 3,000 years. Some of the largest sequoia trees measure 35 feet (10.6 meters) in diameter and up to 300 feet (91 meters) in height.

Their bark can be 4 feet (1.2 meters) thick! Many are found in California’s Sequoia National Park. The General Sherman, for example, is one of the tallest giant sequoias in the world, with a height of about 275 feet (85 meters).

What are coral reefs?

Tropical coral reefs are ridgelike or moundlike structures composed of corals and other aquatic organisms. They border the shorelines of more than 100 countries. Although coral reefs comprise less than 0.5 percent of the ocean floor, it is estimated that more than 90 percent of marine species are directly or indirectly dependent on them—they are home to approximately 4,000 species of fish alone.

Reefs protect human populations along coastlines from wave and storm damage by serving as buffers between oceans and near-shore communities. The Great Barrier Reef, located in northeast Australia’s Coral Sea, measures 1,616 miles (2,000 kilometers) in length. It the largest living structure on Earth, and can be seen from the Moon.

Why does the body need vitamins and minerals?

Vitamins are chemicals that the body needs to function well; minerals are metals and salts that the body also needs in tiny amounts to run properly. Both help the human body grow. Different foods, like vegetables, contain different amounts of vitamins and minerals, so it is important to have variety in your diet so you can get a good balance. When it comes to vitamins, each one works differently in your body. Vitamin D in milk helps your bones grow; vitamin A in carrots helps you see at night; vitamin C in oranges helps boost your immune system and helps your body heal if you get a wound; and the B vitamins in leafy green vegetables help your body make protein and energy.

And although some vitamins like A (which helps your eyesight) and D are stored in your body (for several days or up to several months), others, like C and the B vitamins, quickly pass through your bloodstream. So it’s important to replace your vitamins every day.