The original gesture of Christian prayer was spreading the arms and hands heavenward. There is no mention anywhere in the Bible of joining hands in prayer, and that custom didn’t surface in the church until the ninth century. In Roman times, a man would place his hands together as an offer of submission that meant, “I surrender, here are my hands ready to be bound or shackled.” Christianity accepted the gesture as a symbol of offering total obedience, or submission, to God.
When you are young, it is mainly your parents, but also teachers and other grownups close to you, who decide what is right and wrong. They are the ones who make the rules that they believe will keep you safe and help you learn how to become a good person and get along in the world. Adults make the best teachers because they have experienced a lot of different situations while growing up themselves, and they have learned lessons from those experiences that they can share with you. Grownups are wiser than children, who have lived just a short time in the world. But, as you continue to mature, you will have your own experiences and learn your own lessons. You may begin to question certain rules, and your ideas about what is right and wrong may change. This development is a normal part of growing up, the point at which you start to become the independent and unique person you are meant to be.
In the twelfth century, Henry I of England decreed that a yard would be the distance from his nose to the thumb of his outstretched arm. As crude as this seems, Henry was only off by one-hundredth of an inch from today’s version. The metre was introduced by the French after the revolution and was intended to be exactly one-ten-millionth the distance between the North Pole and the equator, which was incorrectly calculated as 39.37 inches.
With the most common coffeemaker, the drip coffee machine, hot water drips down freely onto ground coffee beans to make coffee. The water inside the machine’s water bucket is heated as it passes along a heat-resistant tube. The tube goes into the drip area and releases heated water, just below boiling temperature (212 degrees Fahrenheit [100 degrees Celsius]). The water is heated by a heating element (a resistive heating coil that gives out heat when electricity is passed through it). The heating element has direct contact with the water inside the water bucket, and also heats the heating pad on which the glass coffee container is rested. Today, most models of coffee machines are either semi-automatic or automatic. Buttons and switches have replaced the manual coffee straining and lever-pushing of espresso machines. And some machines now have special features, such as built-in coffee bean grinders and froth makers.
The smallest individual flowering plant is watermeal, a member of the duckweed family. The plant itself is 1/32 of an inch in width, or about the size of a pinhead. The light green free-floating, rootless plant grows in lakes and ponds, and weighs about 1/190,000 of an ounce, equivalent to two grains of table salt. They are very hard to see; in fact, you would need about 5,000 plants to fill up one thimble. However, because they grow in colonies, these plants look like algae spreading across the water. Their capacity to reproduce very quickly can cause a pond to be completely covered in the green plants in just a few weeks.
All flowering plants have a mechanism to make sure that their blooms develop at just the right time of year, whether in the springtime or autumn. Most respond to the amount of sunlight, and can distinguish between 16 hours of light and 8 hours of light. Some flower only when days are long and nights are short, such as radishes, asters, petunias, and beets. Others, such as chrysanthemums, goldenrods, and poinsettias, flower only when nights are long and days are short.
During colonial times the U.S. Navy used the oak tree’s hard wood to build its ships. The U.S.S. Constitution received its nickname, “Old Ironsides,” during the War of 1812 because its live oak hull was so tough that British war ships’ cannonballs lit erally bounced off it. Because the Constitution was built before shipbuilders learned to bend or steam wood into shape, the live oak’s long, arching branches were used as braces to connect the ship’s hull to its deck floors. Throughout the years, oak wood has been used as lumber, railroad ties, fenceposts, veneer, and fuel wood. Today it is manufactured into flooring, furniture, and crates.
The gravity of the moon is one-sixth that of the earth; hence the weight of a person on the surface of the moon will be one-sixth of his actual weight on earth.
Bretton Woods Agreement
Clouds being bad conductors of heat do not permit radiation of heat from land to escape into the sky. As this heat remains in the atmosphere, the cloudy nights are warmer.