Babies are born with about 300 to 350 bones, but many of these fuse together between birth and maturity to produce an average adult total of 206. Bone counts vary according to the method used to count them, because a structure may be treated as either multiple bones or as a single bone with multiple parts. There are four major types of bones: long bones, short bones, flat bones, and irregular bones. The name of each type of bone reflects the shape of the bone. The shape of the bone also tells about its mechanical function. Bones that do not fall into any of these categories are sesamoid bones and accessory bones.
Rain clouds are generally dark gray because light cannot penetrate them due to the deep and densely packed water droplets and ice inside the cloud. Generally, the color of a cloud depends on the cloud’s relationship to the sunlight: Clouds appear gray when they block sunlight.
The thicker the cloud, the more light it blocks. When a cloud is about 3,000 feet (914 meters) thick, hardly any sunlight will make its way through the cloud.
Kissing bridges are covered bridges with roofs and wooden sides. They are called kissing bridges because people inside the bridge cannot be seen from the outside, making them good places to kiss discreetly. They were first built in the nineteenth century by engineers who designed coverings to protect the structures from the effects of the weather.
More than 10,000 covered bridges were built across the United States between 1805 and the early twentieth century. As of January 1980, only 893 of these covered bridges remained—231 in Pennsylvania alone, where the first one was erected.
A virus is a malicious software program that infects computer files or hard disk drives and then makes copies of itself. Many activities that kids do online can leave computers vulnerable to viruses. E-mail attachments are a common means of distributing viruses, but viruses can also be downloaded when you share files and open instant message attachments. In order to keep your computer safe, never open an e-mail attachment you haven’t requested.
Send an e-mail to friends to confirm that they meant to send you an attachment. Also, you can configure your instant messaging program so you can’t receive files from other users. Never download any program without checking with a parent first. You can protect your computer by always running up-to-date firewall software, by running antivirus software regularly, and by periodically scanning your computer for spyware or other unwanted software and immediately removing it.
Cellular, or cell, phones first became available to consumers in the early 1980s, but the technology that made them small and truly portable evolved gradually over the next 10 years or so. By the beginning of the twenty-first century, millions and millions of people in countries all over the world were using cell phones on a daily basis. And it isn’t just adults who enjoy the benefits of completely mobile phone capabilities: in the United States alone, more than 20 percent of teenagers have a cell phone. That translates to at least one in five American teens. The cellular system divides each city into many small cells (a large city can have hundreds). Each cell has its own tower (which contains an antenna as well as transmitters and receivers that send and receive signals). Each tower can handle numerous callers at a given time, and their small size and weaker signal (compared to the radio antennae) means that their signals don’t interfere with those of nearby towers. When you call someone using a cellular phone, your phone is sending and receiving signals via radio waves, invisible bands of energy that work like light rays. In other words, your cell phone is a fancy, high-tech radio. After you dial a friend’s number, your phone must find the closest tower by searching for the strongest signal. Once that signal is located, your phone transmits certain information—like your cell phone number and serial number—that help your service provider make sure you are one of their customers.
Then the mobile telephone switching office (MTSO) finds an available channel where your conversation can take place. The MTSO then completes the connection (all of this happening in a few short seconds) and you are chatting with your friend, without wires or cords to hold you down. If you are sitting in the back seat of the car while talking, and your mom is driving you from one end of town to the other, your call will be switched automatically from one cell tower to the next without any pause in your conversation.
Around the world, people have made paper from a wide variety of plant materials, such as wood pulp, rice, water plants, bamboo, cotton, and linen clothing. The ancient Egyptians made paper from papyrus reeds that grew abundantly along the Nile River. Today’s paper fiber comes mainly from two sources: pulpwood logs and recycled paper products. In fact, much of the paper today is a blend of new and recycled fiber. To make paper commercially, companies mash up these wood fibers and mix them with water.
This mixture is mashed into a thin sheet. The sheet is dried and pressed flat into large rolls, cut into different sizes, and converted into paper products. Recycling paper and paper products helps save trees and support the paper-making process. According to the American Forest and Paper Association more than half—53.4 percent—of the paper used in the United States was recovered for recycling in 2006.
As a matter of fact, yes! Researchers believe that regular contact with pets can reduce levels of stress and reduce blood pressure (the force of blood pushing against the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps out blood).
Pets offer stability, comfort, security, affection, and intimacy. Owning a dog also provides a great opportunity to get exercise and fresh air, since it will need to go for a walk every day.
Information about dinosaurs changes all the time as new bones are found and new evidence about their surroundings becomes available. The largest complete dinosaur fossil found by paleontologists (scientists that study dinosaurs) was Brachiosaurus (meaning “arm lizard”), a huge dinosaur that lived during the Jurassic Period. It weighed about 80 tons (72,640 kilograms) and reached 75.5 feet (23 meters) in length and 39 feet (12 meters) in height—about the length of two large school buses and the height of a four-story building. Parts of leg bones and vertebrae of even larger dinosaur species have been discovered, and scientists have studied these parts to try and determine their exact size.
Several of these—such as Argentinosaurus and Amphicoelias—might have been one and a half to two times larger than Brachiosaurus. The Argentinosaurus, thought to weigh as much as 100 tons (90,800 kilograms), was uncovered in the late 1990s in Argentina, which was home to many of the world’s largest dinosaurs. These gentle giants were once thought to live in watery, swampy regions, but recent evidence suggests that most of them were forest dwellers that ate leaves from the tops of trees. They had enormous bodies, very long necks, relatively small heads, and thick, tree-trunk-like legs, much like an elephant’s legs. They moved very slowly and did not have many ways to defend themselves, but their tremendous size kept most predators away.
The Sun is extremely hot. The surface of the Sun (or its outer visible layer, called the photosphere) is about 10,000 degrees Fahrenheit (5,537 degrees Celsius)— about 50 times the temperature required to boil water.
The core of the Sun, where solar energy is created, reaches 27 million degrees Fahrenheit (15 million degrees Celsius). It is so intense that nuclear reactions take place there.
1. 80% of women use silence to express pain. You know she’s truly hurt when she chooses to ignore you.
2. Psychology says, friendship is not about who you spend the most time with, it’s about who you have the best time with.
3. Psychology says, ironically, the more you hide your feelings, the more they show. The more you deny them, the more they grow.
4. Being sarcastic on a regular basis can add up to 3 yrs to your life. Sarcasm is extremely healthy for the mind.
5. Being able to respond with sarcasm to a stupid question within seconds is literally a sign of a healthy brain.
6. Bad relationships change good people.
7. Psychology suggest that sometimes you love someone so much that not even the truth can change your mind.
8. The loneliest people are the kindest. The saddest people smile the brightest. The most damaged people are the wisest.
9. Late night phone and text conversations tend to be the best.
10. Work hard in silence, let your success be your noise.
11. Psychology says, the person you care about the most can literally shatter your confidence with their opinions.
12. Psychology says: People tend to value memories more than actual people. Sometimes you miss the memories, not the actual person.
13. When it’s after 2am, just go to sleep. The decisions you make after 2am are always the wrong decisions.
14. Psychology says, your personality is who you are. Your attitude is usually based on how a person treats you.
15. 70% of people pretend to be okay simply because they don’t want to annoy others with their problems.
16. Positive events, such as graduating, getting married and a new job often lead to depression.
17. Psychology says, the lyrics in your favorite song express everything that you struggle to say or express to others.
18. Being in a relationship is not about kissing, dates or showing off. It’s about being with the person who makes you happy.
19. People who laugh more are better able to tolerate pain – Both physical and emotional.
20. Women are automatically more attracted to guys who make an effort to start the conversation, showing initiative and consistency.
21. Psychology claims that If two past lovers can remain just friends, its either they are still in love, or never were.
22. Generally, people are more likely to assume you’re being rude when you’re actually being honest.
23. Your age doesn’t define your maturity, your grades don’t define your intellect, and rumors don’t define who you are.
24. 90% of people will fake laugh when they don’t understand what someone said to them.
25. Psychology says, staying quiet doesn’t mean you’ve got nothing to say. It means you don’t think they’re ready to hear your thoughts.