Scientists do not know exactly why people need sleep, but studies show that sleep is necessary for survival. Sleep appears to be necessary for the nervous system to work properly. While too little sleep one night may leave us feeling drowsy and unable to concentrate the next day, a long period of too little sleep leads to poor memory and physical performance.
Hallucinations (seeing things that aren’t really there), vision problems, and mood swings may develop if sleep deprivation continues.
Like many inventions, the development of the modern zipper can be traced to a series of events. In 1893, Whitcomb Judson patented and marketed a “clasp locker,” a complicated hook-and-eye shoe fastener. Together with businessman Colonel Lewis Walker, Whitcomb launched the Universal Fastener Company to manufacture the new device. He did not use the word “zipper,” although many people often credit him as the zipper’s creator. Instead, it was Swedish-born Gideon Sundback, an electrical engineer who was hired to work for the Universal Fastener Company, Who gets the credit.
He was responsible for improving Judson’s fastener, and by December 1913, he had designed the modern zipper. Sundback increased the number of fastening elements from four per inch to ten or eleven, had two facing-rows of teeth that pulled into a single piece by a slider, and increased the opening for the teeth guided by the slider. Sundback also created a machine that was able to manufacture the zipper.
Comets are solar system bodies that orbit the Sun, just as planets do, except a comet usually has a very elongated orbit. Part of its orbit is very, very far from the Sun and part is quite close to the Sun. They are sometimes nicknamed dirty “cosmic snowballs,” because they are small, irregularly shaped chunks of rock, various ices, and dust.
As the comet gets closer to the Sun, some of the ice starts to melt and boil off, along with particles of dust. These particles and gases make a cloud around the nucleus, called a coma. The coma is lit by the Sun. The sunlight also pushes this material into the brightly lit “tail” of the comet.
There is no such thing as “earthquake season.” Earthquakes happen in cold weather, hot weather, dry weather, and rainy weather. Weather, which takes place above Earth’s surface, does not affect the forces several miles beneath the surface, where earthquakes originate.
The changes in air pressure that are related to the weather are very small compared to the forces in Earth’s crust, and the effect of air pressure does not reach beneath the soil.
According to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Which is in charge of space exploration and scientific discovery for the United States, the Hubble transmits about 120 gigabytes of science data every week. That’s equal to about 3,600 feet (1,097 meters) of books on a shelf. The growing collection of pictures and data is stored on magneto-optical disks. Among its many discoveries, Hubble has revealed the age of the universe to be about 13 to 14 billion years, which is a more accurate estimate than the Big Bang range of between 10 to 20 billion years.
Hubble also played a key role in the discovery of dark energy, a mysterious force that causes the expansion of the universe to accelerate. Hubble has shown scientists galaxies in “toddler” stages of growth, helping them understand how galaxies form. It found protoplanetary disks, clumps of gas and dust around young stars that likely function as birthing grounds for new planets. It discovered that gamma-ray bursts—strange, incredibly powerful explosions of energy—occur in far-distant galaxies when massive stars collapse.
Antibiotics are medicines that help the human body fight bacteria, either by directly killing the offending germs or by weakening them so that the body’s own immune system can fight and kill them more easily.
The most widely known antibiotic is penicillin, which is made from mold. Penicillin kills bacteria by interfering with the formation of the cell walls or cell contents of the bacteria.
The phrase charley horse has its roots in baseball. At the beginning of the twentieth century, groundskeepers often used old and lame horses to pull the equipment used to keep the playing field in top condition.
The Baltimore Orioles had a player named Charley Esper, who, after years of injuries, walked with pain. Because his limp reminded his teammates of the groundskeeper’s lame horse, they called Esper “Charley Horse.”
Located at 0 degrees longitude, the prime meridian passes through Greenwich, England. Halfway around the world in the middle of the Pacific Ocean (180 degrees from Greenwich) is the International Date Line (IDL), where the date changes across the boundary of the time zone.
The entire world is on the same date only at the instant when it is noon in Greenwich, England, and midnight at the IDL. At all other times, there are different dates on each side of the IDL.
1. On average, a man spends about five months of his life shaving.
2. On average, a hair strand’s life span is five and a half years.
3. On average redheads have 90,000 hairs. People with black hair have about 110,000 hairs.
4. Next to bone marrow, hair is the fastest growing tissue in the human body.
5. In a lifetime, an average man will shave 20,000 times.
6. Humans have about the same number of hair follicles as a chimpanzee has.
7. Hair will fall out faster on a person that is on a crash diet.
8. The longest human beard on record is 17.5 feet, held by Hans N. Langseth who was born in Norway in 1846.
9. The average human head weighs about eight pounds.
10. The reason why some people get a cowlick is because the growth of their hair is in a spiral pattern, which causes the hair to either stand straight up, or goes to a certain angle.
11. The reason why hair turns gray as we age is because the pigment cells in the hair follicle start to die, which is responsible for producing “melanin” which gives the hair colour.
12. The fastest growing tissue in the human body is hair.
13. A lifespan of an eyelash is approximately 150 days.
14. A survey done by Clairol 10 years ago came up with 46% of men stating that it was okay to color their hair. Now 66% of men admit to coloring their hair.
15. The big toe is the foot reflexology pressure point for the head.
16. The average human scalp has 100,000 hairs.
17. The first hair dryer was a vacuum cleaner that was used for drying hair.
18. Ancient Egyptians used to think having facial hair was an indication of personal neglect.
19. The loss of eyelashes is referred to as madarosis.
20. Hair and fingernails are made from the same substance, keratin.
21. Eyebrow hair lasts between 3-5 months before it sheds.
22. A Russian man who wore a beard during the time of Peter the Great had to pay a special tax.
23. Everyday approximately 35 meters of hair fiber is produced on the scalp of an adult.
24. Hair is made from the same substance as fingernails.
25. Brylcreem, which was created in 1929, was the first man’s hair product.
Camels are the only animals with humps. A camel’s hump is a giant mound of fat, Which can weigh as much as 80 pounds (35 kilograms). The hump allows a camel to survive up to two weeks without food. Because camels typically live in the deserts of Africa and the Middle East, where food can be scarce for long stretches, their hump is key to their survival. When camels are born their humps are empty pockets of flexible skin. As a camel grows and begins to form its fatty tissue reserves, the humps begin to fill out and take shape.
The humps also come in handy for humans who have domesticated the camel. For thousands of years, people have used these strong, resilient creatures for transportation and for hauling goods. The two-hump, or Bactrian, camel was domesticated sometime before 2500 B.C.E., probably in northern Iran, northeastern Afghan – istan, and northern Pakistan. The one-hump, or Dromedary, camel was domesticated sometime between 4000 and 2000 B.C.E. in Arabia.