Located in Arizona and stretching to Colorado, the Grand Canyon is 18 miles (29 kilometers) wide, 227 miles (365 kilometers) long, and 6,000 feet (1,828 meters) deep in its deepest section. It takes about two days by foot or mule to travel from the top to the bottom.
Although it is not the biggest canyon in the world—Barranca de Cabre in northern Mexico and Hell’s Canyon in Idaho are deeper—it is known for its amazing landscape. The canyon’s walls are made up of rocks, cliffs, hills, and valleys formed millions of years ago, and it is home to hundreds of species of mammals, reptiles, and birds. Although people lived in the canyon some 4,000 years ago, today it is a national park and national landmark.
In 1865, Robert Lincoln rushed to his father’s deathbed. Sixteen years later, as Garfield’s secretary of war, he was with that president when he was shot by an assassin. In 1901, Robert arrived in Buffalo for the American Exposition just in time to see President McKinley murdered.
After that, Robert Lincoln vowed never again to be in the presence of an American president.
Everyone with children has kissed a small bruise or cut to make it better. This comes from one of our earliest medical procedures for the treatment of snakebite. Noticing that a victim could be saved if the venom was sucked out through the point of entry, early doctors soon began treating all infectious abrasions by putting their lips to the wound and sucking out the poison.
Medicine moved on, but the belief that a kiss can make it all better still lingers.
In the Arctic and Antarctic circles there is at least one day a year when the Sun does not rise and one day when the Sun does not set. This is because of their close location to Earth’s poles.
The Sun does not set on the summer solstice (June 21 in the north and December 21 in the south) and does not rise on the winter solstice (December 21 for the north and June 21 for the south). For this reason, the Arctic and Antarctic are called the “lands of midnight Sun” in the summer and “lands of noon darkness” 12 in the winter.
Disease and poverty exist all over the world. The areas with the most disease and poverty are countries in sub-Saharan Africa and the Asia-Pacific region. In these areas, people do not have enough food to eat, water to drink, or money to live.
They have diseases like AIDS, which weakens the immune system, and cholera, an intestinal infection. In the United States, about 33 million people live in poverty, according to government statistics. Almost 12 million of these people are children, and about 3.5 million were age 65 or older.
Airplanes function according to a complex mix of aerodynamic principles—theories that explain the motion of air and the actions of bodies moving through that air. Airplanes get their power from engines. Small planes generally use piston engines, Which turn propellers that push aircraft through the air in the same way that boat propellers push vessels through water. But bigger planes use jet engines, powered by burning fuel. These engines expel great amounts of air that thrust a plane forward and up. An airplane must be in constant motion—its wings slicing through rushing air to create lift—in order to stay up; moving air is also required to steer it. In order to get enough lift to rise into the air on takeoff, an airplane has to travel along the ground first at great speed.
Airplanes are able to lift into the air and stay there because of the shape of their wings. An airplane wing is flat on the bottom and curved on the top. When a plane’s engines push it forward, air divides to travel around its wings. The air that passes over the larger curved top moves faster than the air that passes under the flat bottom. The faster-moving air on top becomes thinner and has lower pressure than the air below, which pushes the wing up. Uneven air pressure caused by the shape of an airplane’s wings, then, creates a force called lift, which allows an aircraft to fly.
Lots of kids have been picked on by a bully, for many different reasons. Bullying is intentional tormenting in physical, verbal, or psychological ways, and can range from hitting, shoving, name-calling, threats, and mocking to taking lunch money or personal items. If you’ve been the target of a bully, you know it can be very scary and upsetting to be teased, hit, or threatened.
Sometimes it helps to simply ignore what the bully is saying—most bullies tease or threaten other kids to get a reaction from those they tease, and if they get no reaction at all, it’s a lot less fun for them. It usually helps to have friends around. A kid walking alone is more vulnerable than a group of kids. And even if you don’t feel confident, sometimes acting confident helps. If you hold your head high and tell a bully to stop calling you names, you may just surprise that bully into silence. One approach to avoid is responding to bullying with fighting or bullying back—aggressive responses will only make matters worse.
The Internet is an amazing place where you can find information on all kinds of things. You can chat with friends, e-mail long-distance pen pals, and read what other people are saying about things you are interested in. But just as you should not talk to strangers when you are in the outside world, you should also use caution when chatting in the cyber world. Unfortunately, there are people surfing the Web who present a threat to kids.
They may be adults posing as another kid or somehow lying to you about who they are and what they want. To be safe, never give anyone you don’t know personal information about yourself online—including your name, address, phone number, or e-mail password. And never agree to meet a person you’ve chatted with online, even if that person seems friendly or harmless. Let your parents know if a stranger is sending you e-mail or instant messages.
Some children do better in school than others for many reasons. All kids have different talents and abilities, and some of these just show up better in school. Some children may be naturally better at reading and writing, working with numbers, and at storing and using information.
Some children are very organized, good with managing their time, and diligent about doing their homework. Most schoolwork requires these skills, so kids who are strong in these areas are likely to be better students. Still, most kids have enough ability to earn the basic skills taught in schools, things that they will need to know to get along well in the world once they graduate. Kids succeed by putting a lot of time and effort into their studies, by getting help when they need it, and by not giving up!
Throughout the centuries—and in different parts of the world—men and women have married for a variety of reasons. It used to be common for young people to marry the person their parents chose for them, and some cultures continue to practice arranged marriages. Throughout most of the world today, however, a man and a woman usually marry because they love each other and want to be together and care for one another for the rest of their lives.
Adults often want to have children together and raise them in a family. While people don’t have to be married in order to have children, many people feel more comfortable raising a family as part of a married couple. When a man and a woman marry they make their permanent partnership public. After a marriage ceremony, they are connected by a legal contract— a marriage license—that can be dissolved by another legal decree known as a divorce (though death legally ends a marriage as well). Marriage grants a couple a new legal and social status, changing such things as the way they pay taxes and the amount they pay for health insurance.