Interesting facts about Chocolate

1.    Hershey’s Kisses were first produced in 1907 and were shaped like a square. A new machine in 1921 gave them their current shape.
2.    Chocolate has over 500 individual flavor components. Strawberry and vanilla each have less than half that much.
3.    The word “cocoa” was the result of the misspelling of “cacao.”
4.    The first machine-made chocolate was produced in Barcelona, Spain, in 1780.
5.    Cacao has been around for millions of years and is probably one of the oldest of nature’s foods
6.    Because of the nature of cacao butter, chocolate is the only edible substance that melts at around 93? F, just below body temperature. This means that after placing a piece of chocolate on your tongue, it will begin to melt
7.    The cacao bean naturally contains almost 300 different flavors and 400 separate aromas.
8.    The largest and oldest chocolate company in the U.S. is Hershey’s. Hershey’s produces over one billion pounds of chocolate product annually.
9.    In a small study at Indiana University, cyclists who drank chocolate milk after a workout had less fatigue and scored higher on endurance tests than those who had a sports drink.
10.    The first chocolate chip cookie was invented in 1937 by Ruth Wakefield who ran the “Toll House Inn.” The term “Toll House” is now legally a generic word for chocolate chip cookie. It is the most popular cookie worldwide and is the official cookie of Massachusetts.
11.    Research suggests that dark chocolate boosts memory, attention span, reaction time, and problem-solving skills by increasing blood flow to the brain. Studies have also found that dark chocolate can improve the ability to see in low-contrast situations (such as poor weather) and promote lower blood pressure, which has positive effects on cholesterol levels, platelet function, and insulin sensitivity.
12.    In 1879, Swiss Rodolphe Lindt discovered conching, an essential process in refining chocolate. He discovered it by accident when his assistant left a machine running all night.
13.    In 1875, Swiss Daniel Peter discovered a way of mixing condensed milk, manufactured by his friend Henri Nestl?, with chocolate to create the first milk chocolate.
14.    Quakers, such as George Cadbury, amassed a great fortune producing drinking chocolate as an alternative to alcohol.
15.    People who feel depressed eat about 55% more chocolate than their non-depressed peers.
16.    Napolean always carried Chocolate with him as an energy booster.
17.    Nearly 40% of world’s Almond and 20% of world’s peanuts are used for making chocolate.
18.    The first chocolate chip cookie was invented in 1937 by Ruth Wakefield who ran the “Toll House Inn.” The term “Toll House” is now legally a generic word for chocolate chip cookie. It is the most popular cookie worldwide and is the official cookie of Massachusetts.
19.    There is a correlation between the amount of chocolate a country consumes on average and the number of Nobel Laureates that country has produced.
20.    A jewel thief made off with $28 million dollars of gems in 2007 because he was able to gain the trust of the guards working the bank in Antwerp, Belgium, by repeatedly offering them chocolate.

21.    The blood in Psycho’s famous shower scene was actually chocolate syrup.
22.    At one point the Nazis plotted to assassinate Winston Churchill with an exploding bar of chocolate.
23.    The scientific name for the tree that chocolate comes from, Theobroma cacao, means “food of the gods.”
24.    It takes a almost a full year for a cocoa tree to produce enough pods to make 10 standard-sized Hershey bars.
25.    Chocolate has over 600 flavor compounds, while red wine has just 200.
26.    Theobromine, the compound in chocolate that makes it poisonous to dogs, can kill a human as well. You’d have to be a real glutton to go out this way though, as an average 10-year-old child would have to eat 1,900 Hershey’s miniature milk chocolates to reach a fatal dose.
27.    The ancient Maya are believed to be the first people to regularly grow cacao trees and drink chocolate. The Aztecs got it later, but they had to trade for cacao because they couldn’t grow the trees.
28.    The word “chocolate” comes from the Aztec word “xocoatl,” which referred to the bitter, spicy drink the Aztecs made from cacao beans.
29.    In fact, chocolate was consumed as a liquid, not a solid, for 90% of its history.
30.    When the Aztec empire ruled most of Mesoamerica, chocolate was still widely consumed, and cacao seeds were a form of currency.
31.    The Aztec emperor Montezuma II drank more than 50 cups of chocolate every day.
32.    A wide range of substances have been ground up and mixed with chocolate, including, in the pre-Columbia era, possible dinosaur fossils.
33.    During the Revolutionary War, soldiers were sometimes paid in chocolate.
34.    It’s believed that people who are allergic to chocolate are actually allergic to cockroaches, as around eight insect parts are typically found in a bar of chocolate, according to the Food and Drug Administration.
35.    Chocolate gives you a more intense mental high and gets your heart pounding more than kissing does.
36.    Hershey’s Kisses got their name from the kissing sound the machine that deposits the chocolate on the conveyor belt makes.
37.    Hershey’s makes 70 million Kisses every day, and enough annually to make a 300,000-mile-long line of Kisses.
38.    The inventor of the chocolate chip cookie, Ruth Wakefield, sold her cookie recipe to Nestle in exchange for a lifetime supply of chocolate.
39.    Ben & Jerry’s made the first cookie dough ice cream after receiving an anonymous suggestion on their flavor suggestion board in its Burlington, Vermont, shop.
40.    There is a rare fourth kind of chocolate in addition to the classic milk, dark, and white varieties: blond chocolate.

41.    The film Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory was financed by Quaker Oats to promote its new Wonka Bar candy. This is also why the film is called “Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory” instead of “Charlie and the Chocolate Factory” like the book it’s based on.
42.    The first chocolate bar was invented in 1847 by Joseph Fry.
43.    The chocolate industry is worth approximately $110 billion per year.
44.    Milky Way candy bars are not named after the galaxy. The name came from the malted milkshakes whose flavor they originally intended to mimic.
45.    Three Musketeers bars were originally three pieces to a package, in chocolate, vanilla, and strawberry flavors. They switched to just the one chocolate bar after the price of strawberries increased.
46.    In 1947 hundreds of Canadian kids went on strike and boycotted chocolate after the price of a chocolate bar jumped from 5 to 8 cents.
47.    Andes Candies were originally called “Andy’s Candys,” after creator George Andrew Kanelos, but he changed the name after he realized men didn’t want to buy their wives or girlfriends chocolates with another man’s name on them.
48.    The largest chocolate bar ever weighed just over 12,770 pounds.
49.    The most valuable chocolate bar in the world is a 100-year-old Cadbury’s chocolate bar that was brought along on Captain Robert Scott’s first Discovery Expedition to the Antarctic. It sold for $687 at auction in 2001.
50.    Chocolate milk was invented in Jamaica. Irish botanist Sir Hans Sloane is usually given credit for mixing chocolate with milk when he was in Jamaica in the early 1700s, though it’s likely he wasn’t the first person on the island to do so.
51.    Chocolate milk is an effective post-workout recovery drink.
52.    German chocolate cake has nothing to do with Germany. It’s named after its inventor, Sam German.
53.    There is a little caffeine in chocolate. Most bars have about 10 milligrams of caffeine in them, but darker chocolates can have as much caffeine as a can of Coca-Cola.
54.    A 2013 study found that the scent of chocolate in a bookstore made customers 40% more likely to buy cookbooks or romance novels, and 22% more likely to buy books of any genre.
55.    A 2004 study in London found that 70% of people would reveal their passwords in exchange for a chocolate bar.
56.    Americans buy more than 58 million pounds of chocolate on Valentine’s Day every year, making up 5% of sales for the entire year.
57.    The Brussels Airport is the biggest chocolate seller in the world, as vendors there sell more than 800 tons of chocolate every year.
58.    More than two-thirds of the world’s cocoa is grown in Africa, and Côte d’Ivoire alone produces 33% of the world’s supply.
59.    White chocolate technically isn’t chocolate, but you probably already knew that.
60.    After sorting and cleaning, the cocoa beans are roasted for up to two hours.
61.    The cocoa beans are then shelled. What remains are chocolate nibs, which contain 54% cocoa butter. Cocoa butter is the natural fat of the bean.
62.    As the nibs are ground, cocoa butter is released, transforming the solid nibs into the free-flowing substance known as chocolate liquor. Chocolate liquor (not alcoholic, just liquid) is the essence of all real chocolate products.
63.    The chocolate liquor is passed through huge presses to remove a desired amount of the cocoa butter to be used later. Cocoa butter is an amazing vegetable fat that resists rancidity and oxidation and can be kept for years without spoiling. A small amount of cocoa butter is sold to the cosmetics industry.
64.    After the cocoa butter is removed, a pressed cake is left. This is the cocoa powder. The cocoa powder can still contain up to 10% of cocoa butter and will be sold bulk or as an ingredient for bakers, along with chocolatiers.
65.    Solid chocolate is made by adding back together the different parts -cocoa butter, cocoa power – and other ingredients – sugar, perhaps milk and vanilla – to achieve the individual manufacturer’s desired finished taste.
66.    The mixture then travels through a series of heavy rollers until there is a refined smooth paste ready for conching.
67.    Conching is a flavor development process which “kneads” the chocolate.
68.    The final step is tempering, a process that gradually raises, lowers and then raises the temperature again to set degrees. FINALLY, this finished product is poured into many shapes from candy bar sizes to ten pound slabs.

What do we mean by the “sixth sense”?

Humans are credited with five senses: sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell. So someone with a “sixth sense” is gifted with an unexplained perception outside of the common five.

The expression sixth sense comes from a study of blind people reported in 1903 in which it was found that, although deprived of sight, some of the subjects could perceive or sense certain objects in a room in a way that defied scientific understanding.

Which muscles are the largest, and which ones are the smallest?

The largest muscle is the buttock muscle (gluteus maximus), which moves the thighbone away from the body and straightens out the hip joint. It is also one of the stronger muscles in the body. The smallest muscle is the stapedius, in the middle ear.

It is thinner than a thread and 0.05 inches (0.127 centimeters) in length. It activates the stirrup that sends vibrations from the eardrum to the inner ear. The longest muscle is the sartorius, which runs from the waist to the knee. Its purpose is to flex the hip and knee.

How did the United States begin?

The United States of America (USA), or United States for short, is a country that takes its name from the fact that it is made up of states that are joined together, or united, by the U.S. Constitution to form one nation. The country began as 13 colonies of England, which were spread out along the central Atlantic Coast of North America. The original 13 colonies were Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Carolina, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Virginia. The first colony, Virginia, was founded in 1607, and the thirteenth colony, Georgia, was founded in 1733. More than 40 years passed before the colonies joined together, rebelled against England, and declared themselves free, independent states on July 4, 1776, in the famous Declaration of Independence. To gain freedom, the colonies fought the Revolutionary War against the British. The set of peace treaties that ended the war, called the Peace of Paris, was signed in 1783. With this treaty, England gave up its claim to the 13 colonies, along with all land east of the Mississippi River from Canada to Florida.

The original 13 colonies became the first U.S. states, with additional states added into the Union over time. Today there are 50 states, and one district, the District of Columbia. The U.S. Constitution provided that new states can be admitted into the Union by the U.S. Congress. Before they gained statehood, most of the other 37 states passed through a period of time when they were known as territories, organized by Congress. When the people of a territory felt they were ready to form a state government, they elected delegates, prepared a state constitution, and then voted to A 1795 map made in England of the United States shows the original 13 colonies. decide whether they would accept the constitution and ask Congress to approve their admission into the Union. The dates that these territories were admitted into the Union as states are their official birthdays.

Do people still mine for gold in America?

Yes. Yet unlike a few centuries ago, gold panning today is primarily a recreational activity. Gold nuggets are found in areas where lode deposits and erosion have occurred—for example, in streams, rivers, ravines, and lake areas. All you need is a gold pan, a shovel, and a lot of patience. Both gold mines and gold prospecting sites exist in national parks from near Montgomery, Alabama to Washington, D.C. In addition, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Virginia, and Alabama have many gold mines and prospecting sites.

These states were America’s main source of gold for 45 years before the California Gold Rush of 1838, when gold was discovered at Sutter’s Mill in Coloma, California. Its news spread like wildfire, resulting in some 300,000 people coming to California to pan for gold. In California, the five counties of Mariposa, Tuolumne, Calaveras, Amador, and El Dorado—nicknamed the “Mother Lode”—still have gold for discovery. In 1837, the U.S. government established gold coin mints in Georgia and North Carolina to avoid transporting the raw gold to the U.S. Mint in Philadelphia, where coins are made.

How can I get a baby brother instead of a baby sister?

There is no way specific way to place an order for a baby brother or a baby sister. The gender (boy or girl) of a baby is determined by whether the father’s fertilizing sperm has an X or a Y chromosome. An X chromosome will lead to a girl, and a Y to a boy. (Mothers always contribute an X chromosome.) Although scientific methods are available to help parents organize their chromosomes and take advantage of the fact that the “boy” sperm has less DNA than “girl” sperm, they can be expensive and unreliable. One method, called the Shettles method, recommends that if parents want a girl, they should plan to make a baby right around the time of ovulation.

At this time, the egg is as far away as possible from the incoming sperm so the long-distance runners of the sperm world, the X sperm, have a better chance of making it to the egg. For a boy, the method suggests that parents plan to make a baby about two to four days after ovulation. That way, the short-distance sprinting Y sperm can make it to the egg first. Many doctors say that although this method is based in science, it is no guarantee that a couple will have a baby boy or a baby girl.

What’s a cobweb?

A cobweb is an old, abandoned spider web that has collected dirt and dust. Sometimes the cobwebs you see in ceiling crevices and along floorboards are several draglines that spiders no longer use.

The common house spider—which feeds on many insects daily—often abandons webs that do not yield prey, and then constructs new ones until it finds a productive site. It’s best to sweep these old cobwebs away, and let your house spiders spin new webs, preferably outdoors!

Why does my dog sometimes howl?

Like barking, growling, and whining, howling is one of the few forms of verbal communication that dogs have. Its roots go back to dogs’ wolf ancestry, when wild wolves used howling to communicate over long distances. The howl swept through different pitches, which helped the sound carry over longer distances. Wolves use howling to let other pack members know their precise location if they happen to get separated.

Other members of the pack howl back in reply—an acknowledgement that the sent message has been received. Wolves also howl to discourage a rival pack from encroaching on their territory. Dogs today still display some of this behavior. If you leave your house or apartment, your dog may howl to try to reestablish contact with you. If the howling persists after you’ve left, it could be a sign of separation anxiety. And sometimes dogs howl to establish their territory.

Why does a swimming pool appear less deep than is actually is?

The rays of light coming from the bottom of the pool pass from a denser medium (water) to a rarer medium (air) and are refracted (bend away from the normal).

When the rays return to the surface, they form an image of the bottom of the pool at a point, which is little above the real position.

What does the immune system do?

The immune system protects the human body against germs, which are microorganisms that cause sickness and disease. There are four major types of germs— harmful bacteria (pathogens), viruses, fungi, and protozoa. This defense system begins with the skin, which stops germs from getting into your blood or tissues. If germs get into your body, for example through your nose or mouth, white blood cells called phagocytes and lymphocytes attack them. Phagocytes scout out and destroy invaders, and long-living lymphocytes remember the invaders and release chemicals called antibodies to make the body resistant, or immune, to them.

White blood cells live in the bloodstream, lymphatic system, and spleen. The lymphatic system (or lymph system, for short) is a far-reaching network that extends throughout your entire body. A clear liquid called lymph runs throughout the system, washing the body’s cells with nutrients and water and detecting and removing pathogens. Lymph is filtered through the lymph nodes, and then passes into the body’s bloodstream.