A cow, like all mammals, produces milk to feed its young. If its calf nurses regularly, the mother cow’s mammary glands will produce enough milk to give the baby animal all the food it needs. Gradually a calf will nurse less as grass and other feed makes up more of its diet. A mother cow, in turn, will produce less milk until it is no longer needed. But by milking the cows regularly—two or three times a day—dairy farmers can cause the cows to continue producing milk. Certain breeds of cows are particularly good at milk-making, producing 18–27 pints (around 2–3 gallons, or 10–15 liters) each day.
A cow’s large, round udder, located on its underside, has four nipples, or teats, that are squeezed to release stored milk. While once done by hand, milking is done on modern dairy farms by machines with suction hoses, which do the job more quickly and cheaply. Tank trucks collect milk from farms daily and take it to processing plants where it is pasteurized (made germ-free) and used to make dairy products like cheese, butter, and ice cream.
Human beings communicate through language, a complicated system of vocal symbols that our complex brains allow us to learn after we are born. But we also communicate through our bodies and senses. Our organ of touch is our skin, covering the outside of our bodies. (Nerve endings under the surface of skin give us our sense of touch.) Hugging and kissing are ways to share love and caring through touch. When you were born, well before you knew language and could understand caring words, you were learning about love through your sense of touch. As a newborn, when everything was frighteningly new, you immediately experienced the comfort of touch when you were held in your mother’s arms, feeling the warmth of her body and the beat of her heart, sensations familiar to you when you were inside her womb. You were held close when you first learned about food and about how good it felt to have milk in your empty stomach.
Your parents’ caring hands kept you clean and dressed in dry clothes when you could not yet do those things for yourself. So, from your earliest days, you learned that someone’s touch usually made you feel comfortable and safe. Loving and caring about special people in our lives is a feeling inside that is hard to describe in words. But hugs and kisses make it easy to show that love—and their message is clear. Giving hugs and kisses feels as good as getting them. (Because the lips have an extra supply of nerve endings, kissing is an especially intense way to touch.) The human need to share affection through touch is something we all experience throughout our lives.
1. 80% of women use silence to express pain. You know she’s truly hurt when she chooses to ignore you.
2. Psychology says, friendship is not about who you spend the most time with, it’s about who you have the best time with.
3. Psychology says, ironically, the more you hide your feelings, the more they show. The more you deny them, the more they grow.
4. Being sarcastic on a regular basis can add up to 3 yrs to your life. Sarcasm is extremely healthy for the mind.
5. Being able to respond with sarcasm to a stupid question within seconds is literally a sign of a healthy brain.
6. Bad relationships change good people.
7. Psychology suggest that sometimes you love someone so much that not even the truth can change your mind.
8. The loneliest people are the kindest. The saddest people smile the brightest. The most damaged people are the wisest.
9. Late night phone and text conversations tend to be the best.
10. Work hard in silence, let your success be your noise.
11. Psychology says, the person you care about the most can literally shatter your confidence with their opinions.
12. Psychology says: People tend to value memories more than actual people. Sometimes you miss the memories, not the actual person.
13. When it’s after 2am, just go to sleep. The decisions you make after 2am are always the wrong decisions.
14. Psychology says, your personality is who you are. Your attitude is usually based on how a person treats you.
15. 70% of people pretend to be okay simply because they don’t want to annoy others with their problems.
16. Positive events, such as graduating, getting married and a new job often lead to depression.
17. Psychology says, the lyrics in your favorite song express everything that you struggle to say or express to others.
18. Being in a relationship is not about kissing, dates or showing off. It’s about being with the person who makes you happy.
19. People who laugh more are better able to tolerate pain – Both physical and emotional.
20. Women are automatically more attracted to guys who make an effort to start the conversation, showing initiative and consistency.
21. Psychology claims that If two past lovers can remain just friends, its either they are still in love, or never were.
22. Generally, people are more likely to assume you’re being rude when you’re actually being honest.
23. Your age doesn’t define your maturity, your grades don’t define your intellect, and rumors don’t define who you are.
24. 90% of people will fake laugh when they don’t understand what someone said to them.
25. Psychology says, staying quiet doesn’t mean you’ve got nothing to say. It means you don’t think they’re ready to hear your thoughts.
Fixed groups of stars that seem to form a particular shape, such as that of a person, animal, or object, are called constellations. Astronomers have identified 88 constellations and many of them represent characters from Greek and Roman mythology.
For example, the name Hydra, the largest constellation, comes from the water snake monster killed by Hercules in ancient mythology. Some of the constellation names are in Latin; for example, Cygnus means Swan and Scorpius means Scorpion.
Known as the “Giant Water Platter,” South America’s giant Amazon water lily has strong leaves that reach 6 to 8 feet (1.8 to 2.4 meters) across and can support the weight of a child. The water lilies produce flowers that open at night and are the size of a dinner plate. The first night they are white female flowers; on the second night they turn to pink male flowers.
Beetles and sphinx moths that live in the Amazon River region pollinate the flowers and the seedpods—that are the size of a baby’s head—sink beneath the water, where they lay dormant in the mud for up to four years before germinating. The plant lays dormant for a period every year before producing more leaves that increase in size before it flowers again. However, the giant water lily’s leaves are not the biggest on Earth. Palm trees can grow leaves up to 65 feet (20 meters) long!
The dandelion and the daisy are both named for a particular physical characteristic. The English daisy, with its small yellow centre and white- or rose-coloured rays, closes at night and reopens with daylight like the human eye, and so it was named the “day’s eye.”
The dandelion, because of its sharp, edible leaves, was named by the French “dent de lion,” the “tooth of a lion.”
The first primitive plants appeared on land about 470 million years ago. But these plants did not look like the lush greenery we see in the world today. Rather, they were rootless patches of thin, leaflike plants called liverwarts, so named because some species look like green livers. Liverwarts used a specialized filament (called a rhizoid) to absorb water and stick to rocks.
Fossils reveal that the first true plants to colonize land appeared about 420 million years ago. These plants included flowerless mosses, horsetails, and ferns. They reproduced by throwing out spores, or minute organisms that carried the genetic blueprint for the plant. The ferns eventually bore seeds, but not until about 345 million years ago. Plants with roots, stems, and leaves (called vascular plants) evolved about 408 million years ago.
Earrings were used by seamen, especially warriors such as pirates, for very practical reasons and not for decoration. They were given to young sailors as a symbol of their first crossing of the equator, and their purpose was to protect the eardrums during battle.
The pirates, especially those who fired the ships’ cannons during closed combat with the enemy, dangled wads of wax from their earrings to use as earplugs.
Some buildings are called skyscrapers because they are of great height and have an iron or steel frame inside that supports its floors and walls. Before builders figured out how to make such frames, stone or brick walls had to bear the weight of structures, which could not stand up if they were made too high. And tall stone or brick buildings had to have very thick walls on lower floors to bear the weight of the walls and floors above them. These thick walls wasted a lot of useful space. Because cities have limited land, builders experimented with materials and construction methods in an effort to construct taller buildings that were more practical.
Finally, in 1885, William Le Baron Jenny built the first modern skyscraper in Chicago. While just 10 stories high, Which seems short by today’s standards, the Home Insurance Company Building was the first structure to have an internal steel skeleton bear all of its weight. From that point on, tall buildings began to soar into the air, scraping the sky. Just 30 years after the first skyscraper was built, buildings were erected that reached 60 stories high.
A bicycle is a simple device that increases the power that you have in the muscles of your legs, taking you faster and farther than you could ever run. When you push the pedals of your bike around once, the pedal sprocket—the wheel with teeth to which the pedals are attached—goes around once, too. But it pulls a chain along, one that is connected to a much smaller sprocket (with fewer teeth to grip each link of the chain) in the center of your bike’s rear wheel. This smaller sprocket moves around a number of times for each single turn of your pedals, moving your bike wheels a lot faster than you’re moving your feet! Some bicycles have several “speeds,” which means that they have a number of gears (called derailleurs) that vary the rate at which the wheels turn. These extra sprockets are located at the pedals and rear wheel of a bike, where levers move the driving chain sideways, from one to another.
A special spring system keeps the chain tight when it changes from a larger to a smaller sprocket. Although you might think that a rider would always want the wheels of his or her bike to move as fast as possible for each pedal turn, that is not always the case. When going uphill, for instance, a rider can get more force out of a wheel that turns fewer times, making the task easier.