Human beings communicate through language, a complicated system of vocal symbols that our complex brains allow us to learn after we are born. But we also communicate through our bodies and senses. Our organ of touch is our skin, covering the outside of our bodies. (Nerve endings under the surface of skin give us our sense of touch.) Hugging and kissing are ways to share love and caring through touch. When you were born, well before you knew language and could understand caring words, you were learning about love through your sense of touch. As a newborn, when everything was frighteningly new, you immediately experienced the comfort of touch when you were held in your mother’s arms, feeling the warmth of her body and the beat of her heart, sensations familiar to you when you were inside her womb. You were held close when you first learned about food and about how good it felt to have milk in your empty stomach.
Your parents’ caring hands kept you clean and dressed in dry clothes when you could not yet do those things for yourself. So, from your earliest days, you learned that someone’s touch usually made you feel comfortable and safe. Loving and caring about special people in our lives is a feeling inside that is hard to describe in words. But hugs and kisses make it easy to show that love—and their message is clear. Giving hugs and kisses feels as good as getting them. (Because the lips have an extra supply of nerve endings, kissing is an especially intense way to touch.) The human need to share affection through touch is something we all experience throughout our lives.
Yes. Washing your hands with soap and water cleans them of pathogens (bacteria and viruses) and chemicals that can cause disease. Hot water is not enough to clean your hands. Using soap adds to the time spent washing and breaks down the grease and dirt that carry most germs.
The most important times to wash your hands with soap and water are after you use the toilet or before handling food. When not washed with soap, hands that have been in contact with human or animal feces, bodily fluids like mucus, and contaminated foods or water can transport bacteria, viruses, and parasites to others. When done thoroughly and at least for 20 seconds, hand washing can prevent all types of illness and disease, skin infections, and eye infections.
“Dog days” are the hot, humid days of summer that usually take place in the Northern Hemisphere in July and August typically between July 3 and August 11. The days get their name from the dog star Sirius of the constellation Canis Major.
At this time of year, Sirius, the brightest visible star, rises in the east at the same time as the Sun in the northern hemisphere. Ancient Egyptians believed that the heat of this brilliant star added to the Sun’s heat to create this hot weather and they blamed the star for everything from withering droughts to sickness.
Maybe. Warts are skin infections caused by a common virus called HPV (human papillomavirus). They are perfectly “normal,” in that health researchers estimate that three out of four people will develop a wart some time in their lives, usually on their hands or feet. It can take months or years for a wart to disappear on its own. To speed up the process, some skin doctors recommend wrapping the wart in duct tape until it disappears.
The duct tape removes dead skin from the wart, thereby gradually killing off the wart virus that lives in the skin. It may also trigger the body’s immune system to attack the wart virus. Otherwise the wart can be removed by a doctor with a laser or liquid nitrogen, a substance that freezes the skin, killing the cells.
Quickly gobbling up cold ice cream may result in “brain freeze,” also know as an ice cream headache. When the cold object touches the roof of your mouth, the blood vessels contract in order to prevent loss of body heat. As the coldness stops, the blood vessels relax again, quickly increasing blood flow to the brain.
This sudden release is What causes the intense headache sensation. You can relieve brain freeze by quickly warming the roof of your mouth: Touch your tongue to the top of your mouth or, if you can roll your tongue in a ball, press the underside of your tongue (which is warmer) to the roof of your mouth. Slowly sipping room-temperature water or pressing a warm thumb against the roof of the mouth also works for some people.
Yes. The red coloring that makes many juices and jams red is from a natural dye called carmine. Carmine is derived from conchineal, or conchineal extract, Which comes from the bodies of a female beetle (Dactylopius coccus) that lives on the Opuntia cactus. The insect is boiled and the scales of the insect are crushed into a red powder.
It takes about 70,000 insects to make one pound of cochineal. The ancient Aztecs used cochineal as a dye for cloth and other items, and today it is widely used as a coloring agent for food, beverages, and cosmetics.
In 1683, during a time when all the nations of Europe were at war with each other, the Turkish army laid siege to the city of Vienna. The following year Poland joined Vienna against the Turks, who were ultimately forced to lift the siege in 1689.
As a celebration of victory, a Viennese baker introduced crescent-shaped rolls, or “croissants,” copying the shape of the crescent Islamic symbol on the Turkish flag.
A disability can be the result of a disease, an accident, or of genetics, which means that it is a condition that a person is born with.
A lot of times disabled people can learn new ways to do things or use special machines or specially trained animals to help them work around their disability.
A fruit is the part of the plant that nourishes and protects new seeds as they grow. The plant’s ovaries develop into fruit once the eggs inside have been fertilized by pollen. Some plants produce juicy fruit, such as peaches, pears, apples, lemons, and oranges.
Others produce dry fruit, such as nuts and pea pods. If an animal doesn’t eat the fruit, or a human doesn’t pick it off, it falls to the ground and decays and fertilizes the soil where a new seed will grow.
Walking is a great way to exercise. Walking burns calories, strengthens back muscles, strengthens bones, reduces stress, helps improve your mood, helps you sleep better, and requires no equipment. Best of all, it is free and can be done almost anywhere! Walking also helps build community. A simple wave as you walk by your neighbors’ yard helps strengthen community connections. Walking, instead of driving, also reduces traffic congestion and pollution. It is important to be careful when you walk. During the day, wear bright, light clothing; at dusk, dawn, or nighttime, wear reflective clothing, with strips of material or tape attached that bounce back light. Be careful.
Always look both ways before crossing the street, obey traffic signals, and use the crosswalk. Be aware of all traffic, and make sure that drivers see you by making eye contact with them before you cross the street. Walk against the direction of traffic whenever possible. And remember, too, that walking with a friend is always safer than walking on your own. Encourage a friend or family member to join you! Be thoroughly familiar with your route. Know the location of phones, police or fire stations, and businesses, and always bring along some form of identification, like a school ID card.