Bretton Woods Agreement
Tin Pan Alley is an actual place in New York City. It’s the nickname for the side streets off Times Square, where for generations music publishers have auditioned new songs. The name came from the late 1800s, when the awful sound of cheap tinny pianos coming through the open office windows of hundreds of publishers was likened to the beating of tin pans.
Crying is a way of expressing sadness. It helps people who have lost someone close to them express their grief and sorrow. (Talking about the dead person also helps.) People cry because they will never again see the person who has died and they know they will miss that person. If the death is unexpected, the tears may also be caused by feelings of shock and anger. During the period immediately following a person’s death, when the loss of that loved one is felt most sharply, grieving people usually are not comforted by the fact that dying is a natural and necessary process that happens to all living things. As time passes, however, many people begin to accept the loss of their loved one, and the pain of that loss becomes a bit easier to bear. Thinking of the person after some time has passed brings less sadness and maybe even some pleasure as good times with the loved one are remembered.
Ferdania, in Saudi Arabia, is probably the world’s smallest city: it has one police station, one school, one market, one gas station, one health center, and about 10 houses. According to the Guinness Book of World Records, Hum, Croatia, is the smallest town in the world, with a population of only 23 citizens.
The tiny town, which rose during the Middle Ages, is closed off on one side by high towers and a system of walls; the other side is closed off by the outer walls of houses. The smallest city in the United States is Maza, located in Towner County, North Dakota. Established in 1893, the city had a population of 5 when the 2000 Census was taken.
In medieval times, during the last feast of the Christmas week, knights of the realm were required to place their hands on a peacock and vow to continue living up to their pledge of chivalry. This was known as the knight’s “peacock vow.” The New Year’s custom of resolving to live a better life originated with the Babylonians, who promised the gods that they would return all borrowed farm and cooking tools and pay off personal debts.
If cared for properly, green iguanas can live more than 20 years. But they do indeed grow
and grow along the way. Although iguanas make popular pets, they need lots of time, attention, care, and room to grow. A healthy iguana will grow to be 5 to 6 feet (1.5 to 1.8 meters) in length, and will require a very large cage or an entire room to live in. Iguanas need tall cages because they are tree-dwelling (arboreal) creatures, and prefer to spend the majority of their time as high off the ground as possible. Iguanas also need a special diet, plenty of sun, places to climb, and human interaction and stimulation.
All flowering plants have a mechanism to make sure that their blooms develop at just the right time of year, whether in the springtime or autumn. Most respond to the amount of sunlight, and can distinguish between 16 hours of light and 8 hours of light. Some flower only when days are long and nights are short, such as radishes, asters, petunias, and beets. Others, such as chrysanthemums, goldenrods, and poinsettias, flower only when nights are long and days are short.
If you have ever been to the zoo, you might think that some of the large animals, like the elephant, are the smelliest. But this title goes to one of the smaller mammals, the striped skunk. This black and white-striped creature sprays a foulsmelling, musky fluid as a defense against predators. Most wild skunks spray only when injured or attacked, as a defense mechanism. Their scent is composed of a chemical composition that can be released from one or both of their anal glands, located on both sides of their rectum. They can aim their glands at a target up to 15 feet (4.5 meters) away with great accuracy, but fortunately they tend to give a little bit of advanced warning: to signal being angry or scared, they often stamp their front feet, knead the ground like a cat, and hold their tail erect.
The smallest individual flowering plant is watermeal, a member of the duckweed family. The plant itself is 1/32 of an inch in width, or about the size of a pinhead. The light green free-floating, rootless plant grows in lakes and ponds, and weighs about 1/190,000 of an ounce, equivalent to two grains of table salt. They are very hard to see; in fact, you would need about 5,000 plants to fill up one thimble. However, because they grow in colonies, these plants look like algae spreading across the water. Their capacity to reproduce very quickly can cause a pond to be completely covered in the green plants in just a few weeks.
The hard pavement surface we now call asphalt was discovered by chance when an Englishman named E. Purnell Hooley accidentally spilled tar onto some crushed stone. Hooley named this new black pavement by taking the last name of Scotsman John MacAdam, who had developed the use of crushed stone for a firm, dry highway, and prefixing it with “tar.” Tarmacadam was a mouthful, however, and was soon shortened to Tarmac. Hooley patented Tarmac in 1903.