Interesting facts about English Language

1.    Symbols, “@#$%&!”, to represent an obscenity or swearword are called grawlixes.
2.    “queue” – The word “queue” is the only word in the English Language that is still pronounced the same way when the last four letters are removed.
3.    “Dammit I’m mad” is the same spelt backwards
4.    “Set” of all the words in the English Language, the word “set” has the most definitions.
5.    “Bookkeeper” & “Bookkeeping” are only words in English language with three consecutive double letters.
6.    The least used letter in the alphabet is Q.
7.    The most commonly used word in English conversation is ‘I’
8.    The dot on top of the letter ‘i’ is called a tittle.
9.    There are only 4 words in the English language which end in ‘dous’ (they are: hazardous, horrendous, stupendous and tremendous)
10.    The oldest word in the English language is ‘town’.
11.    The word ‘Strengths’ is the longest word in the English language with just one vowel.
12.    The past tense for the English word ‘dare’ is ‘durst’.
13.    The word ‘testify’ derived from a time when men were required to swear on their testicles.
14.    The first English dictionary was written in 1755.
15.    The word old English word ‘juke’ meaning dancing lends its name to the juke box.
16.    The longest one syllable word in the English language is ‘screeched’.
17.    All pilots on international flights identify themselves in English regardless of their country of origin.
18.    The expression to ‘knuckle down’ originated from playing marbles (players used to put their knuckles to the ground for their best shots)
19.    The word ‘almost’ is the longest in the English language with all the letters in alphabetical order.

20.    The number 4 is the only number that has the same number of letters in it – FOUR
21.    Did you know the word ‘Underground’ is the only word that begins and ends with the letters ‘und’.
22.    The word ‘Uncopyrightable’ is the is the only 15 letter word that can be spelled without repeating any letter.
23.    The word ‘Typewriter’ is the longest word that can be typed using only the top row of a keyboard.
24.    Did you know the sentence “The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog” uses every letter in the English alphabet.
25.    The sentence “Pack my box with five dozen liquor jugs” uses every letter of the alphabet and uses the least letters to do so!
26.    The word ‘Rhythm’ is the longest word without a vowel.
27.    “Dreamt” is the only word that ends in mt.
28.    Did you know there are only 3 sets of letters on a keyboard which are in alphabetical order – ‘F G H’, ‘J K L’, ‘O P’
29.    Did you know “Pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis” is the Longest English word in the English dictionary it contains 45 letters.
30.    No words in the English language rhyme with “month”, “orange”, “silver” or “purple”.
31.    “Hungry” and “Angry” are the only words in the English language that end in “-gry.
32.    The only three words in the English language to have 2 consecutive u’s is vacuum, residuum, and continuum.
33.    In the English language there are only three words that have a letter that repeats six times. Degenerescence (six e’s), Indivisibility (six i’s), and nonannouncement (six n’s).
34.    The word “alphabet” is derived from the first two letters in the Greek alphabet: “alpha” and “beta”.
35.    Goddessship is the only word in the English language with a triple letter.
36.    There is a seven letter word in the English language that contains ten words without rearranging any of its letters, “therein”: the, there, he, in, rein, her, here, here, ere, therein, herein.
37.    ‘Stewardesses’ is the longest word that is typed with only the left hand.
38.    The first letters of the months July through to November spell JASON (July August September October November).

Interesting facts about Hair

1.    On average, a man spends about five months of his life shaving.
2.    On average, a hair strand’s life span is five and a half years.
3.    On average redheads have 90,000 hairs. People with black hair have about 110,000 hairs.
4.    Next to bone marrow, hair is the fastest growing tissue in the human body.
5.    In a lifetime, an average man will shave 20,000 times.
6.    Humans have about the same number of hair follicles as a chimpanzee has.
7.    Hair will fall out faster on a person that is on a crash diet.
8.    The longest human beard on record is 17.5 feet, held by Hans N. Langseth who was born in Norway in 1846.
9.    The average human head weighs about eight pounds.
10.    The reason why some people get a cowlick is because the growth of their hair is in a spiral pattern, which causes the hair to either stand straight up, or goes to a certain angle.
11.    The reason why hair turns gray as we age is because the pigment cells in the hair follicle start to die, which is responsible for producing “melanin” which gives the hair colour.
12.    The fastest growing tissue in the human body is hair.

13.    A lifespan of an eyelash is approximately 150 days.
14.    A survey done by Clairol 10 years ago came up with 46% of men stating that it was okay to color their hair. Now 66% of men admit to coloring their hair.
15.    The big toe is the foot reflexology pressure point for the head.
16.    The average human scalp has 100,000 hairs.
17.    The first hair dryer was a vacuum cleaner that was used for drying hair.
18.    Ancient Egyptians used to think having facial hair was an indication of personal neglect.
19.    The loss of eyelashes is referred to as madarosis.
20.    Hair and fingernails are made from the same substance, keratin.
21.    Eyebrow hair lasts between 3-5 months before it sheds.
22.    A Russian man who wore a beard during the time of Peter the Great had to pay a special tax.
23.    Everyday approximately 35 meters of hair fiber is produced on the scalp of an adult.
24.    Hair is made from the same substance as fingernails.
25.    Brylcreem, which was created in 1929, was the first man’s hair product.

Interesting facts about Eye

1.    We should never put anything in or near our eyes, unless we have a reason to use eye drops. We would only do that if our doctor or parent told us to use them.
2.    If the lens in our eye doesn’t work quite right, we can get glasses to help us see. Glasses have lenses in them that work with our eye’s own lens to help us see better.
3.    Just behind the pupil is a lens. It is round and flat. It is thicker toward the middle.
4.    Over the front of our eye is a clear covering called the “conjunctiva.”
5.    Blinking helps to wash tears over our eyeballs. That keeps them clean and moist. Also, if something is about to hit our eye, we will blink automatically.
6.    Some people start to sneeze if they are exposed to sunlight or have a light shined into their eye.
7.    The highest recorded speed of a sneeze is 165 km per hour.
8.    Our eyes have many parts. The black part on the front of our eye is called the “pupil.” It is really a little hole that opens into the back part of our eyes.
9.    Our body has some natural protection for our eyes. Our eyelashes help to keep dirt out of our eyes. Our eyebrows are made to keep sweat from running into our eyes.
10.    The most common injury caused by cosmetics is to the eye by a mascara wand.
11.    It is impossible to sneeze with your eyes open.
12.    Around the pupil is a colored muscle called the “iris.” Our eyes may be BLUE, BROWN, GREEN, GRAY OR BLACK, because that is the color of the iris.
13.    Our eyes are very important to us, and we must protect them. We don’t want dirt, sand, splinters or even fingers to get in our eyes.
14.    The reason why your nose gets runny when you are crying is because the tears from the eyes drain into the nose.
15.    The space between your eyebrows is called the Glabella.

16.    The white part of our eye is called the “sclera.” At the front, the sclera becomes clear and is called the “cornea.”
17.    We don’t want our eyes to get scratched or poked. That could damage our sight!
18.    Babies’ eyes do not produce tears until the baby is approximately six to eight weeks old.
19.    Inside our eye, at the back, is a part called the “retina.” On the retina are cells called “rods” and “cones.” These rods and cones help us to see colors and light.
20.    Your eyes blinks over 10,000,000 times a year!
21.    The study of the iris of the eye is called iridology.
22.    The shark cornea has been used in eye surgery, since its cornea is similar to a human cornea.
23.    The number one cause of blindness in adults in the United States is diabetes.
24.    The eyeball of a human weighs approximately 28 grams.
25.    The eye of a human can distinguish 500 shades of the gray.
26.    The cornea is the only living tissue in the human body that does not contain any blood vessels.
27.    The conjunctiva is a membrane that covers the human eye.
28.    Sailors once thought that wearing a gold earring would improve their eyesight.
29.    Research has indicated that a tie that is on too tight cam increase the risk of glaucoma in men.
30.    People generally read 25% slower from a computer screen compared to paper.
31.    Men are able to read fine print better than women can.
32.    In the United States, approximately 25,000 eye injuries occur that result in the person becoming totally blind.
33.    All babies are colour blind when they are born.
34.    A human eyeball weighs an ounce.

Interesting facts about Psychology

1.    80% of women use silence to express pain. You know she’s truly hurt when she chooses to ignore you.
2.    Psychology says, friendship is not about who you spend the most time with, it’s about who you have the best time with.
3.    Psychology says, ironically, the more you hide your feelings, the more they show. The more you deny them, the more they grow.
4.    Being sarcastic on a regular basis can add up to 3 yrs to your life. Sarcasm is extremely healthy for the mind.
5.    Being able to respond with sarcasm to a stupid question within seconds is literally a sign of a healthy brain.
6.    Bad relationships change good people.
7.    Psychology suggest that sometimes you love someone so much that not even the truth can change your mind.
8.    The loneliest people are the kindest. The saddest people smile the brightest. The most damaged people are the wisest.
9.    Late night phone and text conversations tend to be the best.
10.    Work hard in silence, let your success be your noise.
11.    Psychology says, the person you care about the most can literally shatter your confidence with their opinions.
12.    Psychology says: People tend to value memories more than actual people. Sometimes you miss the memories, not the actual person.

13.    When it’s after 2am, just go to sleep. The decisions you make after 2am are always the wrong decisions.
14.    Psychology says, your personality is who you are. Your attitude is usually based on how a person treats you.
15.    70% of people pretend to be okay simply because they don’t want to annoy others with their problems.
16.    Positive events, such as graduating, getting married and a new job often lead to depression.
17.    Psychology says, the lyrics in your favorite song express everything that you struggle to say or express to others.
18.    Being in a relationship is not about kissing, dates or showing off. It’s about being with the person who makes you happy.
19.    People who laugh more are better able to tolerate pain – Both physical and emotional.
20.    Women are automatically more attracted to guys who make an effort to start the conversation, showing initiative and consistency.
21.    Psychology claims that If two past lovers can remain just friends, its either they are still in love, or never were.
22.    Generally, people are more likely to assume you’re being rude when you’re actually being honest.
23.    Your age doesn’t define your maturity, your grades don’t define your intellect, and rumors don’t define who you are.
24.    90% of people will fake laugh when they don’t understand what someone said to them.
25.    Psychology says, staying quiet doesn’t mean you’ve got nothing to say. It means you don’t think they’re ready to hear your thoughts.

Why is chocolate good for you?

Chocolate contains a range of nutrients which include minerals such as potassium, calcium and iron. It also contains the B-vitamin riboflavin. It is true that most of chocolates’ calories do come from fat but the ingredient, known as cocoa butter, is the kind of fat that consists mostly of monounsaturated fatty acid also found in olive oil; the ‘healthy’ fat needed in all diets.

Although studies are constantly being done with chocolate (and why not?), studies in the past  have shown two significant additional positives. In these test studies, the people who consumed cocoa regularly had a lower blood pressure than those that did not, were less likely to die from cardiovascular disease and had better peripheral blood flow.

Dark chocolate has the potential to have the largest quantity of cocoa solids – at least to 70%. This means that 70% of the chocolate is from the cocoa bean and less from added sugars, oils and perhaps other fillers. Thus the antioxidants in the dark chocolate surpasses pecans (14% less) and red wine (25% less).

Besides the wonderful benefits from our all natural chocolate, nuts are a great food. In general, nuts are loaded with protein. Peanuts have the most, followed by almonds, cashews and walnuts. Protein is essential for healthy brain and muscle function, and for vegetarians, are a great substitute for animal protein. Nuts also contain omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants and fiber. Thus with all the added benefits of chocolate, chocolate dipped nuts are a great snack.

Interesting facts about Chocolate

1.    Hershey’s Kisses were first produced in 1907 and were shaped like a square. A new machine in 1921 gave them their current shape.
2.    Chocolate has over 500 individual flavor components. Strawberry and vanilla each have less than half that much.
3.    The word “cocoa” was the result of the misspelling of “cacao.”
4.    The first machine-made chocolate was produced in Barcelona, Spain, in 1780.
5.    Cacao has been around for millions of years and is probably one of the oldest of nature’s foods
6.    Because of the nature of cacao butter, chocolate is the only edible substance that melts at around 93? F, just below body temperature. This means that after placing a piece of chocolate on your tongue, it will begin to melt
7.    The cacao bean naturally contains almost 300 different flavors and 400 separate aromas.
8.    The largest and oldest chocolate company in the U.S. is Hershey’s. Hershey’s produces over one billion pounds of chocolate product annually.
9.    In a small study at Indiana University, cyclists who drank chocolate milk after a workout had less fatigue and scored higher on endurance tests than those who had a sports drink.
10.    The first chocolate chip cookie was invented in 1937 by Ruth Wakefield who ran the “Toll House Inn.” The term “Toll House” is now legally a generic word for chocolate chip cookie. It is the most popular cookie worldwide and is the official cookie of Massachusetts.
11.    Research suggests that dark chocolate boosts memory, attention span, reaction time, and problem-solving skills by increasing blood flow to the brain. Studies have also found that dark chocolate can improve the ability to see in low-contrast situations (such as poor weather) and promote lower blood pressure, which has positive effects on cholesterol levels, platelet function, and insulin sensitivity.
12.    In 1879, Swiss Rodolphe Lindt discovered conching, an essential process in refining chocolate. He discovered it by accident when his assistant left a machine running all night.
13.    In 1875, Swiss Daniel Peter discovered a way of mixing condensed milk, manufactured by his friend Henri Nestl?, with chocolate to create the first milk chocolate.
14.    Quakers, such as George Cadbury, amassed a great fortune producing drinking chocolate as an alternative to alcohol.
15.    People who feel depressed eat about 55% more chocolate than their non-depressed peers.
16.    Napolean always carried Chocolate with him as an energy booster.
17.    Nearly 40% of world’s Almond and 20% of world’s peanuts are used for making chocolate.
18.    The first chocolate chip cookie was invented in 1937 by Ruth Wakefield who ran the “Toll House Inn.” The term “Toll House” is now legally a generic word for chocolate chip cookie. It is the most popular cookie worldwide and is the official cookie of Massachusetts.
19.    There is a correlation between the amount of chocolate a country consumes on average and the number of Nobel Laureates that country has produced.
20.    A jewel thief made off with $28 million dollars of gems in 2007 because he was able to gain the trust of the guards working the bank in Antwerp, Belgium, by repeatedly offering them chocolate.

21.    The blood in Psycho’s famous shower scene was actually chocolate syrup.
22.    At one point the Nazis plotted to assassinate Winston Churchill with an exploding bar of chocolate.
23.    The scientific name for the tree that chocolate comes from, Theobroma cacao, means “food of the gods.”
24.    It takes a almost a full year for a cocoa tree to produce enough pods to make 10 standard-sized Hershey bars.
25.    Chocolate has over 600 flavor compounds, while red wine has just 200.
26.    Theobromine, the compound in chocolate that makes it poisonous to dogs, can kill a human as well. You’d have to be a real glutton to go out this way though, as an average 10-year-old child would have to eat 1,900 Hershey’s miniature milk chocolates to reach a fatal dose.
27.    The ancient Maya are believed to be the first people to regularly grow cacao trees and drink chocolate. The Aztecs got it later, but they had to trade for cacao because they couldn’t grow the trees.
28.    The word “chocolate” comes from the Aztec word “xocoatl,” which referred to the bitter, spicy drink the Aztecs made from cacao beans.
29.    In fact, chocolate was consumed as a liquid, not a solid, for 90% of its history.
30.    When the Aztec empire ruled most of Mesoamerica, chocolate was still widely consumed, and cacao seeds were a form of currency.
31.    The Aztec emperor Montezuma II drank more than 50 cups of chocolate every day.
32.    A wide range of substances have been ground up and mixed with chocolate, including, in the pre-Columbia era, possible dinosaur fossils.
33.    During the Revolutionary War, soldiers were sometimes paid in chocolate.
34.    It’s believed that people who are allergic to chocolate are actually allergic to cockroaches, as around eight insect parts are typically found in a bar of chocolate, according to the Food and Drug Administration.
35.    Chocolate gives you a more intense mental high and gets your heart pounding more than kissing does.
36.    Hershey’s Kisses got their name from the kissing sound the machine that deposits the chocolate on the conveyor belt makes.
37.    Hershey’s makes 70 million Kisses every day, and enough annually to make a 300,000-mile-long line of Kisses.
38.    The inventor of the chocolate chip cookie, Ruth Wakefield, sold her cookie recipe to Nestle in exchange for a lifetime supply of chocolate.
39.    Ben & Jerry’s made the first cookie dough ice cream after receiving an anonymous suggestion on their flavor suggestion board in its Burlington, Vermont, shop.
40.    There is a rare fourth kind of chocolate in addition to the classic milk, dark, and white varieties: blond chocolate.

41.    The film Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory was financed by Quaker Oats to promote its new Wonka Bar candy. This is also why the film is called “Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory” instead of “Charlie and the Chocolate Factory” like the book it’s based on.
42.    The first chocolate bar was invented in 1847 by Joseph Fry.
43.    The chocolate industry is worth approximately $110 billion per year.
44.    Milky Way candy bars are not named after the galaxy. The name came from the malted milkshakes whose flavor they originally intended to mimic.
45.    Three Musketeers bars were originally three pieces to a package, in chocolate, vanilla, and strawberry flavors. They switched to just the one chocolate bar after the price of strawberries increased.
46.    In 1947 hundreds of Canadian kids went on strike and boycotted chocolate after the price of a chocolate bar jumped from 5 to 8 cents.
47.    Andes Candies were originally called “Andy’s Candys,” after creator George Andrew Kanelos, but he changed the name after he realized men didn’t want to buy their wives or girlfriends chocolates with another man’s name on them.
48.    The largest chocolate bar ever weighed just over 12,770 pounds.
49.    The most valuable chocolate bar in the world is a 100-year-old Cadbury’s chocolate bar that was brought along on Captain Robert Scott’s first Discovery Expedition to the Antarctic. It sold for $687 at auction in 2001.
50.    Chocolate milk was invented in Jamaica. Irish botanist Sir Hans Sloane is usually given credit for mixing chocolate with milk when he was in Jamaica in the early 1700s, though it’s likely he wasn’t the first person on the island to do so.
51.    Chocolate milk is an effective post-workout recovery drink.
52.    German chocolate cake has nothing to do with Germany. It’s named after its inventor, Sam German.
53.    There is a little caffeine in chocolate. Most bars have about 10 milligrams of caffeine in them, but darker chocolates can have as much caffeine as a can of Coca-Cola.
54.    A 2013 study found that the scent of chocolate in a bookstore made customers 40% more likely to buy cookbooks or romance novels, and 22% more likely to buy books of any genre.
55.    A 2004 study in London found that 70% of people would reveal their passwords in exchange for a chocolate bar.
56.    Americans buy more than 58 million pounds of chocolate on Valentine’s Day every year, making up 5% of sales for the entire year.
57.    The Brussels Airport is the biggest chocolate seller in the world, as vendors there sell more than 800 tons of chocolate every year.
58.    More than two-thirds of the world’s cocoa is grown in Africa, and Côte d’Ivoire alone produces 33% of the world’s supply.
59.    White chocolate technically isn’t chocolate, but you probably already knew that.
60.    After sorting and cleaning, the cocoa beans are roasted for up to two hours.
61.    The cocoa beans are then shelled. What remains are chocolate nibs, which contain 54% cocoa butter. Cocoa butter is the natural fat of the bean.
62.    As the nibs are ground, cocoa butter is released, transforming the solid nibs into the free-flowing substance known as chocolate liquor. Chocolate liquor (not alcoholic, just liquid) is the essence of all real chocolate products.
63.    The chocolate liquor is passed through huge presses to remove a desired amount of the cocoa butter to be used later. Cocoa butter is an amazing vegetable fat that resists rancidity and oxidation and can be kept for years without spoiling. A small amount of cocoa butter is sold to the cosmetics industry.
64.    After the cocoa butter is removed, a pressed cake is left. This is the cocoa powder. The cocoa powder can still contain up to 10% of cocoa butter and will be sold bulk or as an ingredient for bakers, along with chocolatiers.
65.    Solid chocolate is made by adding back together the different parts -cocoa butter, cocoa power – and other ingredients – sugar, perhaps milk and vanilla – to achieve the individual manufacturer’s desired finished taste.
66.    The mixture then travels through a series of heavy rollers until there is a refined smooth paste ready for conching.
67.    Conching is a flavor development process which “kneads” the chocolate.
68.    The final step is tempering, a process that gradually raises, lowers and then raises the temperature again to set degrees. FINALLY, this finished product is poured into many shapes from candy bar sizes to ten pound slabs.

Are Machines making human a dumb?

Imagine being surrounded by technologies, and hardly being aware of them. For instance, a person walks into a room and without doing anything, the entire atmosphere is fine-tuned to his or her current mood or expectations. Measurements are taken, personal data is sensed and recorded, and the room adjusts to integrate with the person’s countenance. All this occurs without turning a switch or adjusting an appliance simply walk into the room. We’re beginning to move in this direction, with recent advances in medical technology, with personal fitness devices, and with smart home systems.

Behind the scenes, as the individual enters the room, the unseen technology helps advance the person’s security, health, comfort, and even creativity by providing a seamless set of adjustments and changes to everything from room temperature to computer access to food preparation. What’s not seen are the computers running super-high-speed algorithms, computations, and calculations processing commands and actions to create a seamless life existence for everyday needs.

Here’s a real-world scenario: The person walks in the room. The sensors identify the person, as well as the mood of the person using facial features and expressions, body temperature, and movements, including gait and posture. Additionally, the smart room can monitor an individual’s current health conditions, such as blood pressure, heart rate, breathing, and chemical composition. This is all done in real time.

Next, a robot comes out bringing you water and vitamin supplements from sensing those that are physically lacking. While sitting in a couch overlooking a virtually-generated ocean with the sound of crashing waves, the user decides to catch up on what is happening in the world and accesses the latest news by making a quick sweeping gesture in the air. The room instantaneously turns off the ocean scene and pulls up a news program. It all happens without the user needing to be fully aware of the entire process.

Such a scenario isn’t just limited to the confines of a person’s living quarters. It can apply to a city, a park, a museum, or a business. Imagine a society that’s so intelligent that the machines and computers are constantly collecting data, and learning from our actions and behaviors to make sound judgements and decisions. This human centric vision is just that, centered on the individual with technology serving to enhance, nurture, and protect, making life continually easier, healthier, and more productive. Importantly, people will retain and use the power to preprogram myriad commands and conditions suitable for their daily lifestyles and activities.

Are these innovative technologies are “dumbing” ground for your kids future?

Stop Error Checking in code

Error codes are the problem, not the solution. You probably don’t realize it, but all that code you add to “handle errors” are just making the problem worse. And no matter how much more time you devote to “error checking,” you will never end up with a system that’s smart enough to keep itself error free.

So why do you keep trying? As it happens, there is a better way: just stop doing the error checking. Purge your system of the concept of “error” in the right way, in fact, and you’ll end up with an implementation that works better in nominal cases and gives you better insight and opportunity to regain control when something unexpected happens. Your code will be simpler, too. To get this right we’ll need to reformulate your thinking a little.

Let’s talk about software errors/exceptions and how you can craft better software by giving them appropriate design considerations. I’ve often found that developers, even experienced developers, don’t put much thought into the error objects that they produce.

1. Be specific :
When an exceptional situation occurs and you wish to throw an exception for that state, what type of error should you throw?

2. Great software error messages :
While that seems helpful, it is not a wise idea. Firstly, it leaks implementation details to any users who might see the error message. Secondly, there’s only so much context you can squeeze into the message.

3. Use error properties :
You can simply add properties to your implementation that states properties that matter to you.

4. Only use exceptions in exceptional cases :
This is more a general rule, but exceptions are supposed to be exceptional. They break control flow making it difficult to understand the repercussions of an exception. That means it can be hard for other developers to understand your code. Further making this worse, exceptions are often treated in special ways by the host runtime. Exceptions should be exceptional.