Any group of birds, goats, or sheep can be referred to as a flock, but each feathered breed has its own proper title. Hawks travel in casts, while it’s a bevy of quail, a host of sparrows, and a covey of partridges.
Swans move in herds, and peacocks in musters, while a flock of herons is called a siege. A group of geese is properly called a gaggle, but only When they’re on the ground. In the air they are a skein.
The phrase charley horse has its roots in baseball. At the beginning of the twentieth century, groundskeepers often used old and lame horses to pull the equipment used to keep the playing field in top condition.
The Baltimore Orioles had a player named Charley Esper, who, after years of injuries, walked with pain. Because his limp reminded his teammates of the groundskeeper’s lame horse, they called Esper “Charley Horse.”
Robots like ASIMO and Mahru are sophisticated, expensive, highly technologically advanced machines that are built upon major components found in humans. Robot technicians use the inner workings of the human body as the model for the robots that they make. This modeling ensures that their robots are as lifelike as possible. First, the robot technician designs the five major components he or she will put into the robot: a body structure, a muscle system, a sensory environment, a power source, and a brain system.
Next, they build an intricate machine made up of electrical circuits, electrical valves, piston cylinders, electric motors, solenoids, hydraulic systems, and more—each plays a specific role in getting the robot to work. Every robot has a computer that controls everything else within its body. Many robots can talk and some can even smell, taste, and hear. To get the body of a robot moving, the computer must “tell” the specific part to move. If the technician wants the robot to do something new once it has been made, he or she writes a new computer program. In some cases, if the task is too big for the robot’s wiring system, new parts need to be installed. NUMBERS AND COUNTING
The coco de mer tree, a palm that only grows today on two islands in the Seychelles, produces both the largest seed (each weighs about 44 pounds [20 kilograms]) and the largest nut in the world. The nut, which takes six to seven years to mature and another two years to germinate, is sometimes called the sea coconut or Seychelles nut. When early explorers first discovered the nut, they thought it came from a mythical tree at the bottom of the sea.
Sixteenth-century European nobles decorated the nut with jewels as collectibles for their private galleries. Today, the coco de mer is a rare protected species.
Technically, no. While it is responsible for receiving and transmitting all messages of pain for the whole body, the brain itself does not have pain receptors.
That means that, if you could somehow gain access to another person’s brain, you could poke it or pinch it and that person would not feel the pain.
Afew U.S. states outside of the original 13 have been admitted that were never organized territories of the federal government. The most notable are Vermont, an unrecognized, independent republic until its admission in 1791; Kentucky, a part of Virginia until its admission in 1792; Maine, a part of Massachusetts until its admission in 1820 following the Missouri Compromise, an agreement that regulated slavery in the Western territories;
Texas, a recognized independent republic until its admission in 1845; California, created as a state out of the unorganized territory of the Mexican Cession in 1850 without ever having been a separate organized territory; and West Virginia, created from areas of Virginia that rejoined the Union in 1863, after the 1861 secession of Virginia during the Civil War era.
Once seeds are fully developed, they need a good place to grow. If they just fell to the ground beneath their parent plant, they would struggle, competing against each other for sunlight, water, and minerals. Most seeds need to travel—by wind, water, or with the help of insects and other animals—to better places to germinate, or start to grow into new plants. Some seeds, like those from conifer and maple trees, have wings attached. Others, like those of dandelions, have parachutes made of tiny hairs. Both features allow the seeds to be carried great distances by the wind, and they sometimes land in spots that are good for germination. Water carries other seeds to good growing places; the hard, watertight shell of a coconut, for instance, allows it to travel many miles at sea before finding a beach where conditions are suitable for growth.
Seeds sometimes have to wait a long time before they find good places to grow, places where the sun, moisture, and temperature are right. Most seeds are designed for the wait, protected by a hard outer pod (except those of conifers). Some seeds wait years to germinate, and some just never do. But inside each seed pod is a baby plant, or embryo, and endosperm, a supply of starchy food that will be used for early growth if germination takes place. Then a tiny root will reach down into the soil, and a tiny green shoot will reach up, toward the light.
Around 2400 BC, the ancient Sumarians, who used six as their mathematical base, divided a circle into 360 degrees, with each degree subdivided into another 60 parts, and so on. The Romans called these units minute prima, or first small part, and secunda minuta, or second small part. This system was perfect for round clock faces, and that’s why we use minutes and seconds as divisions of time.
Indeed, it does. A Venus flytrap is a carnivorous plant that attracts, captures, and kills insects and digests and absorbs their nutrients. The leaves of the Venus flytrap, Which can open wide, have short, stiff hairs called trigger hairs. When anything touches these hairs enough to bend them, the two lobes of the leaves snap shut, trapping whatever is inside. The “trap” will shut in less than a second, capturing flies and other insects.
When the trap closes over its prey, finger-like projections called cilia keep larger insects inside. In a few minutes the trap shuts tightly and forms an air-tight seal in order to keep its digestive fluids inside. These fluids help the plant digest prey. At the end of the digestive process, which takes from 5 to 12 days, the trap reabsorbs the digestive fluid and reopens. The leftover parts of the insect blow away in the wind or are washed away by rain.
Frogs are able to make their croaking noises because they have simple vocal cords that have two slits in the bottom of the mouth. These slits open into what is called a vocal pouch. When air passes from the lungs through the vocal cords, a sound is produced. The inflating and deflating vocal pouch makes the sound louder or quieter.
That sound changes depending on the kind of frog there are as many different kinds of croaks as there are frogs! Frogs croak for the same reasons that many animals make noises: to track down and then select a mate, and to protect their territory from other male frogs.