Bulbs, corms, and tubers are all parts of a plant that grow underground. They are each a storage unit for food that gives the plant the energy it needs to grow, bloom, and complete its life cycle each year. A bulb is an underground stem and leaf. It grows in protective layers, much like an onion. At the very center of the bulb is a small version of the flower itself. The bulb’s basil plate—a round and flat hairy mass (the beginnings of roots) on the bottom of the bulb—helps the bulb stay together. Examples of bulbs include tulips, daffodils, lilies, narcissus, and amaryllis. A corm is an underground stem. It has the same type of protective covering and basal plate as the bulb, but it does not grow in layers. Instead, the corm is the base for the flower stem and has a solid texture. Crocuses and gladiolus are both corms. The tuber is an underground stem or root. Just like a potato, it has leathery skin, lots of “eyes,” and no basal plate. The eyes are the growing points where the plants eventually emerge. Dahlias, begonias, and anemones are all tubers.
Literacy is more than just the ability to read and write. According to the Department of Education and other government sites, literacy is defined as an individual’s ability to read, write, speak in one’s native language, and compute and solve problems at levels of proficiency necessary to function on the job, in the family, and in society.
This is a broader view of literacy than just an individual’s ability to read. As information and technology have increasingly shaped society, the skills we need to function successfully have gone beyond reading.
Russia is the largest country in the world, with 6,592,812 square miles (17,075,383 square kilometers) of area. It stretches across two continents, Europe and Asia. It is far bigger than the next largest country in the world, Canada, which has 3,851,809 square miles (9,976,185 square kilometers) of area.
Today’s computers contain millions of transistors placed in a tiny piece of sili- 162 con, some so tiny that they can fit in an ant’s mouth. The transistors (devices that control the flow of electric current) are packed and interconnected in layers beneath the surface of the chip, which is used to make electrical connections to other devices. There is a grid of thin metallic wires on the surface of the chip.
This silicon chip was independently co-invented by two American electrical engineers, Jack Kilby and Robert Noyce, in 1958–1959. The chip, along with the invention of the microprocessor, allowed computers to get smaller and more efficient. Silicon chips are also used in calculators, microwave ovens, automobile radios, and video cassette recorders (VCRs).
Boats need a power source to move them forward in the water. In small vessels this power can be provided by people, who use oars to paddle along. Muscle power cannot move boats very fast or very far, though. The wind can be used, too, to move boats equipped with sails. But for a large boat that needs to go a long distance, the most reliable source of power is a motor-driven engine. Depending on the size of the boat, a gasoline engine, diesel engine, or steam engine does the job. Nuclear power is even used to run some boat engines, like those found in submarines. Motors rotate boat propellers, which have large twisting blades that radiate around a central hub.
These blades push water backward, and the boat moves forward as the disturbed water pushes back. Rotating propellers also create lower water pressure in the space in front of them, which sucks them forward, along with the vessel to which they are attached. (Using these same principles of movement, propellers can also power aircraft.) A boat is steered by a rudder, Which is a flat, upright, movable piece of wood or metal that is attached to its stern, or rear. When turned, the rudder changes the direction of the water around it, which pushes back, forcing the stern, and gradually the rest of the boat, to change direction, too.
There is no way specific way to place an order for a baby brother or a baby sister. The gender (boy or girl) of a baby is determined by whether the father’s fertilizing sperm has an X or a Y chromosome. An X chromosome will lead to a girl, and a Y to a boy. (Mothers always contribute an X chromosome.) Although scientific methods are available to help parents organize their chromosomes and take advantage of the fact that the “boy” sperm has less DNA than “girl” sperm, they can be expensive and unreliable. One method, called the Shettles method, recommends that if parents want a girl, they should plan to make a baby right around the time of ovulation.
At this time, the egg is as far away as possible from the incoming sperm so the long-distance runners of the sperm world, the X sperm, have a better chance of making it to the egg. For a boy, the method suggests that parents plan to make a baby about two to four days after ovulation. That way, the short-distance sprinting Y sperm can make it to the egg first. Many doctors say that although this method is based in science, it is no guarantee that a couple will have a baby boy or a baby girl.
Vitamins are chemicals that the body needs to function well; minerals are metals and salts that the body also needs in tiny amounts to run properly. Both help the human body grow. Different foods, like vegetables, contain different amounts of vitamins and minerals, so it is important to have variety in your diet so you can get a good balance. When it comes to vitamins, each one works differently in your body. Vitamin D in milk helps your bones grow; vitamin A in carrots helps you see at night; vitamin C in oranges helps boost your immune system and helps your body heal if you get a wound; and the B vitamins in leafy green vegetables help your body make protein and energy.
And although some vitamins like A (which helps your eyesight) and D are stored in your body (for several days or up to several months), others, like C and the B vitamins, quickly pass through your bloodstream. So it’s important to replace your vitamins every day.
During the early days of bare-knuckle boxing, a line was scratched across the centre of the ring, dividing it into two halves. This is where the fighters met to start the contest, or where they “toed the line” to begin each round. If, as the fight progressed, one of the boxers was unable to toe the line without help from his seconds, it was said he had failed to come “up to scratch.”
A fruit is the part of the plant that nourishes and protects new seeds as they grow. The plant’s ovaries develop into fruit once the eggs inside have been fertilized by pollen. Some plants produce juicy fruit, such as peaches, pears, apples, lemons, and oranges.
Others produce dry fruit, such as nuts and pea pods. If an animal doesn’t eat the fruit, or a human doesn’t pick it off, it falls to the ground and decays and fertilizes the soil where a new seed will grow.
Republics such as the United States are based upon a voting population. If the citizens of the country do not vote, then politicians do not necessarily need to heed their interests.
It is necessary for the people of a democratic country to constitutionally voice their opinions, and they do this by voting for state propositions and for their city, state, and country’s leaders.